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  • How do I TIG weld alloy C91000?
  • How many rods per lb. ?
  • Brazing concepts: Solidus, liquidus and brazing range
  • Weld cracking problem when welding 6061 sheet material with 4043 filler metal
  • What is the tensile strength of brazed joints
  • Joining aluminum to copper
  • Wire size convertion chart
  • Key metals: Melting points
  • Wire length per pound

  • Q. How do I TIG weld alloy C91000?

    A: For TIG welding, you can use our Phos Bronze A or our Silicon Bronze rod. Phos Bronze A gives better color match. Silicon Bronze gives stronger welds. The TIG welding temp. for both of these filler metals is a little higher than the melting point of the C91000 (1505 Solidus 1760 Liquidus). Because of this temperature question, and depending on the thickness of the welded part, you may want to consider brazing. To braze C91000, you may use our Phos Copper 0 alloy.

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    Q. How many rods per lb. ?

    A: The number of rods per pound (or per kg.) varies with the alloy and with the
    diameter.
    Here are a few commonly used alloys and diameters.

    Diameter\Product ALUM 4043 BARE #681 FC #681
     
    Weight (LB)
    1/16 96 32 23
    3/32 44 14 13
    1/8 27 8 7

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    Q. Brazing Concepts: Solidus, Liquidus and Brazing Range

    A: When brazing, the terms melting point and freezing point are not properly used, unless you are dealing with an unalloyed metal.
    Almost all brazing filler metals are alloys (combinations of elements). You cannot simply guess the melting point of an alloy by figuring the weighted average of the melting points of its elements. Usually, alloys are mixtures that melt little by little through a range of temperatures. A metallurgist makes a distinction between a pure metal’s melting point and a brazing filler metal’s melting range.

    Solidus
    The temperature at which an alloy begins to melt.

    Liquidus
    The temperature above which an alloy is completely molten.

    Eutectic Point
    An alloy is an “Eutectic composition” if it has a specific melting point like that of a pure metal. A Eutectic alloys melting range is small: solidus and liquidus are almost equal. The melting point in this case is called the “eutectic point”.

    Brazing Range
    To ensure a free flowing action, brazing usually requires temperatures above the liquidus. But, for example when brazing joints with a wide gap, you may need a more pasty, sluggish brazing filler metal that will not flow all over the joint. Sometimes, then, the low end of the brazing range for certain brazing filler metals is below the liquidus.

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    Q: I am experiencing a weld cracking problem on our TIG (GTAW) production line where we weld thinner sections of 6xxx series aluminum metal sheets using aufhauser 4043 filler material. Why do you think my welds are cracking? And why is it that not all of my welds, but only some of them are cracking?

    A: The aluminum/magnesium/silicon base alloys (6xxx series) are highly crack sensitive because they contain approximately 1 % Magnesium Silicide (Mg2Si), which falls close to the peak of the solidification crack sensitivity curve.

    The Mg2Si content of these materials is the primary reason that there are no 6xxx series filler alloys made. The cracking tendency of these alloys is lowered to acceptable levels during arc welding by the dilution of the weld pool with excess magnesium (by use of the 5xxx series Al-Mg filler alloys) or excess silicon (by use of the 4xxx series Al-Si filler alloys).

    When we TIG (GTAW) weld on thin material, it is often possible to produce a weld, particularly on corner joints, by melting both edges of the base material together without adding filler material. In the majority of arc welding applications with this base material, we must add filler material if we want to have consistently crack free welds. A possible exception would be counteracting the cracking mechanism by maintaining a compressive force on the parts during the welding operation, which requires specialized fabrication techniques and considerations. This method is seldom used.

    I suspect that the welds in question that are not cracking are those that have had filler material added during welding. My advice would be to ensure that filler alloy is added to all welds during welding in order to reduce crack sensitivity. Consideration should also be given when evaluating the cause of cracking to any differences in welds associated with weld size, and variations in tensile stresses introduced by shrinkage, joint expansion, or externally applied loads.

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    Q: What is the tensile strength of brazed joints

    A: It all depends
    No manufacturer lists the tensile strength of their brazing alloys.
    This is not to make life difficult for the ultimate consumer. It's because people tend to place to much emphasis on any number that might be published. Design engineers sometimes base designs on a number that's not appropriate for the ultimate use.

    In fact, the strength of a brazed joint depends more on the design and the brazing procedure then on the filler metal used.

    Furthermore, tensile strength numbers thaw Aufhauser has measured apply to material in the wrought state. When the filler metal is used in brazing, it is effectively recast. Recast metal has different properties from the wrought metal.

    Empirical testing of various brazed joints has shown that the PSI of the alloy does not correlate directly to the strength of the tested joint. We know some of the factors that influence this process. For example, if the alloy is overheated, the lower melting elements are burned off to a higher degree. This effectively changes the composition of the deposited metal. Thus our advice is to encourage customers to do their own testing of the brazed joint.

    But there are some rules of thumb
    If customers insist on a certain PSI number, we suggest a number ranging from 60,000-70,000 PSI when tested in the wrought state.

    Another rough guideline is that joints properly brazed with Aufhauser Silver alloys have a shear strength that exceeds three times the shear strength of the thinner, joined metal.

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    Q: Joining aluminum to copper

    A: It is difficult to braze or weld aluminum to copper, because of the low melting temperature (1018 F) of the aluminum-copper eutectic and its extreme brittleness. By heating and cooling rapidly, however, reasonably ductile joints are made for applications such as copper inserts in aluminum castings. The usual filler metals and fluxes for brazing aluminum to aluminum can be used, or the silver alloy filler metals BAg-1 and BAg-la can be used if heating and cooling are rapid (to minimize diffusion). Pretinning the copper surfaces with solder or silver alloy filler metal improves wetting and permits shorter time at brazing temperature. A more practical way to braze aluminum to copper is to braze one end of a short length of aluminum-coated steel tube to the aluminum, and then silver braze the other

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    Wire Gauge / Gage Conversion Chart

     

    S.W.G. Wire Number A.W.G. or B&S A.W.G. Metric

    (Inches)

    (Gauge)

    (Inches)

    (MM)

    0.500 0000000 (7/0) ....................... ............
    0.464 000000 (6/0) 0.580000 ............
    0.432 00000 (5/0) 0.516500 ............
    0.400 0000 (4/0) 0.460000 11,684
    0.372 000 (3/0) 0.409642 10,404
    0.348 00 (2/0) 0.364796 9,266
    0.324 0 (1/0) 0.324861 8,252
    0.300 1 0.289297 7,348
    0.276 2 0.257627 6,543
    0.252 3 0.229423 5,827
    0.232 4 0.2043 5,189
    0.2120 5 0.1819 4,621
    0.1920 6 0.1620 4,115
    0.1760 7 0.1443 3,665
    0.1600 8 0.1285 3,264
    0.1440 9 0.1144 2,906
    0.1280 10 0.1019 2,588
    0.1160 11 0.0907 2,304
    0.1040 12 0.0808 2,052
    S.W.G. Wire Number A.W.G. or B&S A.W.G. Metric
    0.0920 13 0.0720 1,829
    0.0800 14 0.0641 1,628
    0.0720 15 0.0571 1,450
    0.0640 16 0.0508 1,291
    0.0560 17 0.0453 1,150
    0.0480 18 0.0403 1,024
    0.0400 19 0.0359 0,9119
    0.0360 20 0.0320 0,8128
    0.0320 21 0.0285 0,7239
    0.0280 22 0.0253 0,6426
    0.0240 23 0.0226 0,5740
    0.0220 24 0.0201 0,5106
    0.0200 25 0.0179 0,4547
    0.0180 26 0.0159 0,4038
    0.0164 27 0.0142 0,3606
    0.0148 28 0.0126 0,3200
    0.0136 29 0.0113 0,2870
    0.0124 30 0.0100 0,2540
    0.0116 31 0.0089 0,2261
    0.0108 32 0.0080 0,2032
    0.0100 33 0.0071 0,1803
    S.W.G. Wire Number A.W.G. or B&S A.W.G. Metric
    0.0092 34 0.0063 0,1601
    0.0084 35 0.0056 0,1422
    0.0076 36 0.0050 0,1270
    0.0068 37 0.0045 0,1143
    0.0060 38 0.0040 0,1016
    0.0052 39 0.0035 0,0889
    0.0048 40 0.0031 0,0787
    0.0044 41 0.0028 0,0711
    0.0040 42 0.0025 0,0635
    0.0036 43 0.0022 0,0559
    0.0032 44 0.0020 0,0508
    0.0028 45 0.0018 0,0457
    0.0024 46 0.0016 0,0406
    0.0020 47 0.0014 0,0350
    0.0016 48 0.0012 0.0305
    0.0012 49 0.0011 0,0279
    0.0010 50 0.0010 0,0254
      51 0.00088 0,0224
      52 0.00078 0,0198
      53 0.00070 0,0178
      54 0.00062 0,0158
      55 0.00055 0,0140
      56 0.00049 0,0124

    Wire Gauges / Gages Arranged In Columns As Follows:

    AWG= American Wire Gauge

    B&S= Brown & Sharpe

    SWG= Imperial Standard Wire Gauge-(British legal standard)

    Wire Gauge /Gage Comment:

    Values are stated in approximate decimals of an inch excluding the metric numbers. As a number of gauges are in use for various shapes and metals, it is advisable to state the thickness in thousands when specifying in gauge number. Metric wire gauge is 10 times the diameter in millimeters.

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    Key Metals: Melting Point Information
    Metal or Alloy Melting Point
    °F °C
    Aluminum, pure 1218 658
    Brass and Bronze 1600-1660 871-904
    Copper 1981 1083
    Iron, Cast and Malleable 2300 1260
    Lead, Pure 620 327
    Magnesium 1240 671
    Monel 2400 1316
    Nickel 2646 1452
    Silver, Pure 1762 961
    Steel, Hi-Carbon
    (0.40% to 0.70% carbon)
    2500 1371
    Steel, Medium Carbon
    (less than 0.15%)
    2700 1482
    Steel, Low Carbon
    (0.15% to 0.40% carbon)
    2600 1427
    Stainless Steel
    (18% Chromium, 8% Nickel)
    2550 1399
    Titanium 3270 1799
    Tungsten 6152 3400
    Zinc, Cast or Rolled 786 419

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    in per lb chart
    Diameter of
    Wire
    Welding or Brazing Alloy Flux-
    Cored

    Steel
    Electrode
    Decimal
    Inches
    Fraction
    Inches
    Aluminum Bronze,
    Alum.
    10%
    Bronze,
    Silicon
    Copper
    (deox.)
    Copper
    Nickel
    Magnesium Nickel Steel,
    Mild
    Steel,
    Stainless
    0.02 --- 32400 11600 10300 9800 9950 50500 9900 11100 10950 ---
    0.025 --- 22300 7960 7100 6750 6820 34700 6820 7680 7550 ---
    0.03 --- 14420 5150 4600 4360 4430 22400 4400 4960 4880 ---
    0.035 --- 10600 3780 3380 3200 3260 16500 3240 3650 3590 ---
    0.04 --- 8120 2900 2580 2450 2490 12600 2480 2790 2750 ---
    0.045 3/64 6410 2290 2040 1940 1970 9990 1960 2210 2170 2375
    0.062 1/16 3382 1120 1070 1020 1040 5270 1030 1160 1140 1230
    0.078 5/64 2120 756 675 640 650 3300 647 730 718 996
    0.093 3/32 1510 538 510 455 462 2350 460 519 510 640
    0.125 1/8 825 295 263 249 253 1280 252 284 279 346
    0.156 5/32 530 189 169 160 163 825 162 182 179 225
    0.187 3/16 377 134 120 114 116 587 115 130 127 ---
    0.25 1/4 206 74 66 32 64 320 63 71 70 ---
    Table gives approximate inches per lb of wire.  In the case of flux coated wire, inches per lb will be about 10-20% higher. 

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