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Technical Guide - Procedures / FAQ


We support the technical needs of our customer by offering on and off-site assistance. You'll find significant amount of information from our procedures. If you the procedure you seek is not available below please call our in-house staff and sales representatives are available to support your design and engineering requirements.

Please consult our procedure guides below for a quick synopsis of methods leading to successful brazing / welding.

Procedures/ Techniques:
Brazing / Soldering Procedures
Copper Welding Procedures
Aluminum Welding Procedures
Cast Iron Welding
Stainless Welding Procedures



  • How do I TIG weld alloy C91000?
  • How many rods per lb. ?
  • Brazing Concepts: Solidus, Liquidus and Brazing Range
  • Weld cracking problem when welding 6061 sheet material with 4043 filler metal

  • Q. How do I TIG weld alloy C91000?

    A: For TIG welding, you can use our Phos Bronze A or our Silicon Bronze rod. Phos Bronze A gives better color match. Silicon Bronze gives stronger welds. The TIG welding temp. for both of these filler metals is a little higher than the melting point of the C91000 (1505 Solidus 1760 Liquidus). Because of this temperature question, and depending on the thickness of the welded part, you may want to consider brazing. To braze C91000, you may use our Phos Copper 0 alloy.


    Q. How many rods per lb. ?

    A: The number of rods per pound (or per kg.) varies with the alloy and with the
    diameter.
    Here are a few commonly used alloys and diameters.

    Diameter\Product ALUM 4043 BARE #681 FC #681
     
    Weight (LB)
    1/16 96 32 23
    3/32 44 14 13
    1/8 27 8 7

    Q. Brazing Concepts: Solidus, Liquidus and Brazing Range

    A: When brazing, the terms melting point and freezing point are not properly used, unless you are dealing with an unalloyed metal.
    Almost all brazing filler metals are alloys (combinations of elements). You cannot simply guess the melting point of an alloy by figuring the weighted average of the melting points of its elements. Usually, alloys are mixtures that melt little by little through a range of temperatures. A metallurgist makes a distinction between a pure metal’s melting point and a brazing filler metal’s melting range.

    Solidus
    The temperature at which an alloy begins to melt.

    Liquidus
    The temperature above which an alloy is completely molten.

    Eutectic Point
    An alloy is an “Eutectic composition” if it has a specific melting point like that of a pure metal. A Eutectic alloys melting range is small: solidus and liquidus are almost equal. The melting point in this case is called the “eutectic point”.

    Brazing Range
    To ensure a free flowing action, brazing usually requires temperatures above the liquidus. But, for example when brazing joints with a wide gap, you may need a more pasty, sluggish brazing filler metal that will not flow all over the joint. Sometimes, then, the low end of the brazing range for certain brazing filler metals is below the liquidus.

    Q: I am experiencing a weld cracking problem on our TIG (GTAW) production line where we weld thinner sections of 6xxx series aluminum metal sheets using aufhauser 4043 filler material. Why do you think my welds are cracking? And why is it that not all of my welds, but only some of them are cracking?

    A: The aluminum/magnesium/silicon base alloys (6xxx series) are highly crack sensitive because they contain approximately 1 % Magnesium Silicide (Mg2Si), which falls close to the peak of the solidification crack sensitivity curve.

    The Mg2Si content of these materials is the primary reason that there are no 6xxx series filler alloys made. The cracking tendency of these alloys is lowered to acceptable levels during arc welding by the dilution of the weld pool with excess magnesium (by use of the 5xxx series Al-Mg filler alloys) or excess silicon (by use of the 4xxx series Al-Si filler alloys).

    When we TIG (GTAW) weld on thin material, it is often possible to produce a weld, particularly on corner joints, by melting both edges of the base material together without adding filler material. In the majority of arc welding applications with this base material, we must add filler material if we want to have consistently crack free welds. A possible exception would be counteracting the cracking mechanism by maintaining a compressive force on the parts during the welding operation, which requires specialized fabrication techniques and considerations. This method is seldom used.

    I suspect that the welds in question that are not cracking are those that have had filler material added during welding. My advice would be to ensure that filler alloy is added to all welds during welding in order to reduce crack sensitivity. Consideration should also be given when evaluating the cause of cracking to any differences in welds associated with weld size, and variations in tensile stresses introduced by shrinkage, joint expansion, or externally applied loads.

     

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